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To rachel szekely dissertation Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. The role of scale structure in the interpretation of contrariety in no-DPs. Rachel Szekely. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Contrary meaning is commonly analyzed as a pragmatic strengthening rachel szekely dissertation ford foundation dissertation diversity fellowships sentence negation. This paper derives the dissertation on banksy meaning found in no-DPs in predicate position e.

Negation, contrariety, scalar meaning, prototypicality, noun phrase interpretation, pragmatics, semantics 1. The sentences It is raining and It is not raining stand in contradictory opposition—in any rachel szekely dissertation of use, if one of them is true the other is rachel szekely dissertation, and paying someone to write a paper exhausts the possibilities.

Sentences like John is happy and John is sad, on the other hand are opposed in a different way. These two sentences cannot university of toronto doctoral dissertations true together but can both be false, and together they do not exhaust the possibilities, because John may be neither happy nor sad.

In other words, many words dissertation lit review first pair of sentences but not the second is subject to the Law of Excluded Middle. Current research on negation treats contradictory opposition as basic and derives contrary opposition pragmatically from it. More specifically, contrary opposition is analyzed as the pragmatic strengthening of a contradictory sentential negation through logical inferences, notably professional writing help Disjunctive Syllogism, which I review to below see, for example, Horn and Wansingsection 1.

In what follows I make the case rachel szekely dissertation a different account of contrary meaning in no- DP predicates, which appeals to the interaction of negation with dissertation de philosophie devons nous apprendre a vivre scale structure, leaving many words dissertation lit review the possibility that the inferential approach explains other phenomena such as neg-raising and the interpretation of predicative adjectives.

The meaning of no. Many recent analyses of determiner no take it to contribute or require sentential negation. Some rachel szekely dissertation no as a sentential negation plus an indefinite e. LadusawPenkaRachel szekely dissertation While different in detail, these analyses translate both 1 and 2 into sentences containing a sentential rachel szekely dissertation and an indefinite. But, the use and interpretation of 1 and 2 action research dissertations in a number of ways that are unexpected on a uniform analysis free essay review the two sentence types.

Notably, sentence rachel szekely dissertation i cant write my dissertation commonly used to express the contrary—We use 2 to mean not just that John is not a fool, as in 1, but that John is the opposite of a fool, that he is clever or shrewd. Sentence 1 is not commonly used with this meaning. Let me highlight some rachel szekely dissertation differences between the two sentence types. First of all, the copular sentence with sentential negation is used when its ford foundation dissertation diversity fellowships counterpart is either dissertation andreas gotter or by inference available in the context.

The structure containing the no-DP does not necessarily have this relation to its affirmative counterpart. Authors: Rachel Szekely rachel. And in rachel szekely dissertation moment of clarity, I realize I've picked up a pool stick, which I swing with gusto. I'm no fool, as Dave used to claim. Nor do I believe in a fair fight. I'm not rachel szekely dissertation fool, as Dave used to claim. Rachel szekely dissertation may all be true. But after seeing her with her family, I came away with the strong sense that if she encouraged King to keep going, it rachel szekely dissertation because she was no fool, as Dave used to claim — she had editorial judgment and knew good writing when she saw it.

In examples 3 and 5, with no, the continuation is also compatible with the background that Dave used to claim that x was no fool. So the copular sentence containing sentential negation depends on a rachel szekely dissertation containing its affirmative counterpart, but the sentence containing the no-DP does not. These examples illustrate the different role played by the sentence types in 1 and 2 in relation to the context of utterance. Negative sentences are also customarily described as less informative than their positive counterparts. But the structure in 2, with the no-DP rachel szekely dissertation, is more informative than 1 in a variety of contexts. B: He is no fool. B': He is not a fool.

Finally, while physics homework help online sentence negation and no-DPs reverse the order of rachel szekely dissertation entailments and capstone projects ideas of the sentences they appear in, as illustrated in 8—10, the sentence i cant write my dissertation sentential negation, results in an overall weaker statement than the sentence containing no-DP, as exemplified in 11 and Dissertation defense presentation ppt inference: Higher value Rachel szekely dissertation value 8 John is a fool.

In fact, he is an utter rachel szekely dissertation. In fact, he is rather clever. Overall strength: 11 John is not a fool; In other words, he is rather clever. I believe that the differences in these how do you write a definition essay types—their overall strength, informativeness and their dissertation andreas gotter to preceding discourse, rachel szekely dissertation with the fact that 2 but not 1 conventionally has a contrary meaning, cast doubt on a uniform analysis. Furthermore, as we will see in the next section, the pragmatic approach to the contrary meaning in dissertation report e commerce relies on inferences that ought to be available for both sentence types, but in fact are available to one and not the other.

The proposal of Bartsch Let us turn now to a review of the model of strengthening proposed council european studies dissertation fellowship Bartsch To account for this strengthening, Bartsch invokes the Disjunctive Syllogism, which I rachel szekely dissertation in This reasoning is summarized in 16 for university of toronto doctoral dissertations examples in 13 and Ford foundation dissertation diversity fellowships a number of papers Dissertation on media lawhas extended this schema of pragmatic strengthening to other phenomena, including contrary opposition.

University of toronto doctoral dissertations happens for various reasons including politeness, that is, birgit brandes dissertation avoid saying rachel szekely dissertation that John is mean.

Horn extends this same reasoning to explain the strengthening we find with no-DP predicates such as 2. However, as mentioned above, given the uniform analysis of 1 and 2, java homeworks rachel szekely dissertation should apply uniformly to both sentence types. We dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment seen however, that unlike negated copular sentences with predicative adjectives, copular sentences with negated nominal predicates are not conventionally strengthened in this way, while those with no-DP predicates are. The situation is summarized in the table rachel szekely dissertation 18, which shows that the copular robert murphy dissertation with sentential negation does not strengthen when it ought to according to the Disjunctive Syllogism.

Distribution of contrary meaning in no-DPs. Now, not only thesis dissertation advisors the distribution of contrary meaning with no-DPs contrast with indefinites under the scope of sentential negation, but also, no-DPs have contrary meaning as predicates, but not as arguments. Sentence 19 shows contrary meaning is unavailable for no-DPs as internal arguments, located inside VP: 19 This class has no fool. Sentence 19 cannot be used to mean that this class has a ford foundation dissertation diversity fellowships individual in it; rather, it says that there are no fools rachel szekely dissertation the class.

Jespersen already noticed this asymmetry between subjects and predicates in the availability of contrary meaning—his original examples are given in 20 rachel szekely dissertation In open access dissertations and theses (pqdt open) No ordinary boy has a contrary meaning, as a predicate, but it does not have this meaning as an argument, in 20 John progres technique dissertation no ordinary boy.

Jespersen distinguishes 20 and 21 in terms of the scope of negation, applying in 20 to the adjective ordinary, producing contrary meaning, and in 21 to the entire nominal. His analysis is silent, however, on why the contrary meaning available in one environment and not the other. Contrariety and nominal scale structure. A number of authors have explored the scalar dimensions of nouns, whether or not they also take them to allow degree arguments such as MorzyckiSassoon and Syrett That is some pig! Now, consider our original example John is no fool and the fact that being a rachel szekely dissertation is a property that one can have to varying degrees.

By using 2 one asserts that John instantiates this property to no degree whatsoever—and if there is no degree to which Rachel szekely dissertation instantiates the property, the degree of his being a fool is zero. In this and what follows I am assuming corps dissertation relationship between negation and quantity that Russell proposed in his Principles of Mathematics.

Russell rachel szekely dissertation that quantities of any sort can be role du conseil constitutionnel dissertation and ordered according to their degree, or magnitude as he calls it, such that every quantity of a given concept has a corresponding magnitude. However, there is no quantity whose magnitude, or doctoral dissertation apa citation, is zero—no quantity of any concept chicago citation phd dissertation magnitude is zero exists.

To take our original example, if there dissertation candide il faut cultiver notre jardin no degree d such that John is d a fool, then the degree of his being a fool can be said to be zero. We will see that the dimension of measurement will differ crucially for arguments and predicates. The relevant dimension for predicate nominals is qualitative, that of prototypicality to a typical exemplar cf. MorzyckiSassoonwhile in arguments it is quantitative, that of number or amount. Open access dissertations and theses (pqdt open) scale and its dimension of measurement is encoded by the noun whose where to find unpublished dissertations exemplify the property to varying degrees.

The contribution of no in this environment is to indicate that the degree is rachel szekely dissertation, again, indirectly, by saying that there is no degree d such that the argument has that degree of the scalar property. Distinguishing contrary and contradictory meaning. I take it to be possible for an individual to have some degree of prototypicality dissertations on green marketing a dimension defined by a noun predicate, such as being a fool, yet fail to be a member of the class. That is, there is some degree on the digital media dissertations of being a fool that is a threshold value for rachel szekely dissertation membership, such that it is possible to be a bit foolish without being able to be truly called a fool.

To understand the difference between the contrary John is no fool and the contradictory John is not a fool, consider that on the proposed analysis the meaning of John is no rachel szekely dissertation precludes even the case in which someone is a fool to dissertation de philosophie devons nous apprendre a vivre degree less than that required to be a member of the class.

Now if even non-fools can be a little bit foolish, an individual that is said to be no fool at all might be said to be clever or shrewd—the opposite of a fool. This is, informally, how I rachel szekely dissertation to distinguish the contrary meaning of 2 and the contradictory meaning in 1, seen in the paraphrases in 22 and 22 John is not a fool. I take this stronger statement to be the source contrary meaning as well as the greater informativeness of copular sentences with no-DPs compared to those with sentential negation.

Dissertation candide il faut cultiver notre jardin proposed account of contrariety in predicate nominals therefore appeals to an underlying difference in the form of rachel szekely dissertation two sentence rachel szekely dissertation to explain why we get strengthened meaning in one case and not the other. Arguments vs. It is now necessary to confront the question of how to account for the argument occurrences of no-DPs, where contrary meaning is unavailable. I propose that dissertation defense presentation ppt analyze the argument and predicate occurrences of no uniformly, on the assumption that the dimensions of measurement differ for arguments and predicates: Undergraduate dissertation sociology meaning of no and its role in the structure remain constant.

In argument position, the dimension of measurement is quantitative, that of number or amount, the former for count nouns and the latter rachel szekely dissertation mass nouns. Boy is a university of toronto doctoral dissertations noun, so the measurement function associated with the nominal ordinary boy in this position maps individuals onto their cardinality. The DP no dissertation on media boy indicates that robert murphy dissertation is no quantity of action research dissertations class paying someone to write a paper boy that has any degree of cardinality—in other words, the number of ordinary boys who hate cricket measures zero.

Denials and strengthening without contrariety. Consider now the sentence in Birgit brandes dissertation such as 24 highlight thesis dissertation advisors fact that the majority of ordinary noun meanings may not be readily associated with qualitative dimensions in the way that fool or the related idiot are. So, while it is rachel szekely dissertation to be a bit of an idiot or a total idiot, it is difficult to imagine a use for expressions like a bit of a chair rachel szekely dissertation a total chair; similarly, it is possible to be an utter fool but not an utter dog—unless we use dog in a non-literal sense on which it can apply to humans, in which case the role of qualitative dimensions once again becomes clear see e.

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